In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Intensely Merciful.
Praise be to Allah the Lord of the worlds
and His prayers be upon Muhammad and his progeny the Imams and Mahdies.
I ask Allah to grant you success to all that is good and use you for victory in the sake of His religion.
Those are some answers from Sayyed Ahmed Alhasan [pbuh] regarding what you asked and it is mentioned in the book :
Regarding the Banks..
Q90/ The Western (European) Banks: is it permissible to put a deposit there and take interest resulting from this deposit? Is it permissible to take a loan from them although it is with interest? And what if someone took the loan and didn’t want to pay it back, at times when he is not being able to and at other times when he is able?
Answer: There is no Riba [usury] with those; because they are neither Muslims nor believers, and it is permissible to take interest from them, and it is permissible to take loan from them with interest. It is not obligatory to repay the interest to them but it is obligatory to repay the loan to them as long as they are neither engaged in warfare nor Nawasib. And with the inability, there is no obligation to repay them until ability to repay is obtained.
Q91/ Is it permissible to delude a non-Islamic bank and take out a loan from them, and then if he could return this amount to them he would, but what if he could not return it, what is the ruling?
Answer: In respect to transactions with banks that are owned by non-Muslims or owned by Nawasib who sets up hostility to the Imams or Mahdies, it is permissible to take from them loans with interest, or that you deposit your money with them and take interest from them, as there is no usury between the believer and non-Muslims, or between a believer and a one who sets up hostility (Nasibi). And if you have taken a loan from those and you were unable to repay there is no problem may Allah grant you success.
Regarding the insurance…
Q99/ what are the jurisprudence rulings regarding life insurance or insurance against illness, accidents or theft and all that has to do with insurance?
Insurance: is a permissible contract usually between an insurance company (insurer) on one side, and a person or persons or a company (the insured or repository) on the other side. In this contract, the insurer undertakes for the one who insured to pay him or pay his heirs a sum of money if something unexpected happened to a certain thing that concerns him during a specific period of time in exchange for the one who insured to pay a certain amount of money during a specific period of time.
1-the one insured commits himself to pay the amount of money that he is incumbent upon by virtue of the contract and during the specified period of time or else if he refrained from paying, the insurer can revoke the contract and return half of the amount paid to him from the one insured if he had paid part of the amount that he is incumbent to pay.
And there are other rulings of the insurance clarified by the Imam [pbuh] in the source referred to.
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds.
First of Jamaadi 1433
Various Answers of Jurisprudence, V.1